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Stroke
Stroke81113
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MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The brain receives blood via two major pairs of vessels, the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The branches of these arteries supply brain cells with oxygen and glucose necessary for their functions. A stroke, also called a cerebrovascular accident, CVA, or brain attack, is an interruption in the brain's blood supply that causes temporary or permanent brain cell dysfunction and damage. With prolonged blood deprivation, called ischemia, metabolic processes diminish, and the brain cells die. Stroke may cause paralysis or weakness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, balance or coordination problems, difficulty walking, problems with memory or learning, and changes in emotions or personality. Transient ischemic attack, or TIA is a brief reduction in brain function resulting from arterial vasospasm or temporary occlusion. TIAs cause short-term changes in speech, motor function, balance, vision, or consciousness, and can signal an oncoming serious stroke. Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke and is classified as thrombotic or embolic. Thrombotic stroke occurs when a thrombus, or stationary blood clot, blocks blood flow through an artery and starves local brain cells. Embolic stroke is caused by an embolus, or traveling clot fragment that originates in the systemic circulation, flows into a narrowed cerebral vessel and occludes it, resulting in tissue ischemia. The other type of stroke is a hemorrhagic stroke which occurs when a cerebral vessel ruptures, resulting in uncontrolled blood flow that compresses and damages nearby brain tissues. Intracerebral hemorrhagic strokes occur within the brain tissue itself, while subarachnoid hemorrhagic strokes occur between the arachnoid and pia mater on the brain surface. Aneurysm rupture and head trauma are two causes of hemorrhagic stroke. In acute thrombotic stroke care, thrombolytic medications such as tissue plasminogen activator, or TPA, can be given within three hours of a thrombotic stroke's onset to break clots apart and restore blood flow. Long-term stroke treatment may involve antithrombotic drugs, including anticoagulants such as aspirin and warfarin, antiplatelet drugs, statins, and antihypertensives to prevent additional CVAs, and a rehabilitative regimen to help recover lost or impaired skills. Physical and occupational therapy help the patient relearn motor function and daily activities. Speech and psychological therapy help the patient express him or herself and cope with new challenges. ♪ [music] ♪
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