Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and multiple tender points. "Tender points" refers to tenderness that occurs in precise, localized areas, particularly in the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. People with this syndrome may also experience sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and other symptoms.
How Many People Have Fibromyalgia?
According to the American College of Rheumatology, fibromyalgia affects 3 to 6 million Americans. It primarily occurs in women of childbearing age, but children, the elderly, and men can also be affected.
Although the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, researchers have several theories about causes or triggers of the disorder. Some scientists believe that the syndrome may be caused by an injury or trauma. This injury may affect the central nervous system. Fibromyalgia may be associated with changes in muscle metabolism, such as decreased blood flow, causing fatigue and decreased strength. Others believe the syndrome may be triggered by an infectious agent such as a virus in susceptible people, but no such agent has been identified.
Fibromyalgia is difficult to diagnose because many of the symptoms mimic those of other disorders. The physician reviews the patient's medical history and makes a diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on a history of chronic widespread pain that persists for more than 3 months. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has developed criteria for fibromyalgia that physicians can use in diagnosing the disorder. According to ACR criteria, a person is considered to have fibromyalgia if he or she has widespread pain in combination with tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific tender point sites.
Treatment of fibromyalgia requires a comprehensive approach. The physician, physical therapist, and patient may all play an active role in the management of fibromyalgia. Studies have shown that aerobic exercise, such as swimming and walking, improves muscle fitness and reduces muscle pain and tenderness. Heat and massage may also give short-term relief. Antidepressant medications may help elevate mood, improve quality of sleep, and relax muscles. Patients with fibromyalgia may benefit from a combination of exercise, medication, physical therapy, and relaxation.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke,
National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, MD 20892
Last reviewed: December 1999
Nucleus Medical Media Disclaimer of Medical and Legal Liability
Nucleus Medical Media ("Nucleus") does not dispense medical or legal advice, and the text, illustrations, photographs,
animations and other information ("Content") available on this web site is for general information purposes only. As with
any medical or legal issue, it is up to you to consult a physician or attorney for professional advice. YOU SHOULD NOT
DISREGARD PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL OR LEGAL ADVICE BASED ON CONTENT CONTAINED ON THIS WEB SITE, NOR SHOULD YOU RELY ON THE
CONTENT ON THIS WEB SITE IN PLACE OF PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL OR LEGAL ADVICE.
NUCLEUS DISCLAIMS ALL RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY FOR ANY COUNSEL, ADVICE, TREATMENT, DIAGNOSIS OR ANY MEDICAL, LEGAL OR
OTHER INFORMATION, SERVICES OR PRODUCTS THAT YOU OBTAIN BASED ON VIEWING THE CONTENT OF THIS SITE. THE INFORMATION ON THIS
WEB SITE SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED COMPLETE OR SUITABLE FOR ANY PURPOSE WHATSOEVER.
Mature Content Disclaimer: Certain Content on this web site contains graphic depictions or descriptions of medical
information, which may be offensive to some viewers. Nucleus, its licensors, and its suppliers disclaim all responsibility
for such materials.
Copyright © 2021 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved.