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高钾血症:症状、常见危险因素和管理

ID: ANH19224chis
医学动画文字记录:你或你关心的人可能被诊断为高钾血症,这是一种血液中钾含量过高的情况。本视频将帮助你更多地了解高钾血症,包括其症状、常见危险因素和管理方法。通常高钾血症没有症状。不过,随着时间的推移,出现的轻微症状可能包括恶心、肌肉无力、麻木或刺痛。更严重的症状可能会突然出现,包括呼吸短促、心悸、胸痛、恶心或呕吐,需要立即就医。人体需要在血液中保持适量的钾,以保证神经和肌肉包括心脏的正常工作。钾是人体从食物中获取的几种矿物质之一。其中大部分钾储存在身体的细胞中,还有少量储存在细胞外和血液中。健康的肾脏通过将多余的钾随着尿液排出体外,帮助维持血液中钾的正常水平。有些危险因素可能会损害肾脏,或阻止身体在细胞中保存钾,导致高钾血症。高钾血症的一些常见危险因素包括慢性肾脏疾病,肾脏逐渐失去正常功能;心力衰竭,一种心脏无法将血液输送到身体其他部位的情况;高血压,一种血液对动脉壁的压力过大的疾病,可能会导致诸如慢性肾病和心力衰竭等并发症;糖尿病,一种血液中含有过多糖分的疾病,服用治疗这些或其他疾病的药物,可能会阻止肾脏或身体维持正常的钾含量。医生可能会做血液检查来检测身体的钾含量。对大多数人来说,正常范围是3.5~5.0。高钾血症是指钾含量高于5。如果你有高钾的风险,向医生咨询管理钾水平的方法。你可能会被要求避免或限制吃高钾食物。另外,医生可能会调整你的药物。为了帮助降低高钾血症的风险,了解你的风险因素、钾含量、要避免的食物和正在服用的药物是很重要的。如果你对高钾血症或医生给你开的任何药物有疑问,请咨询医生。遵医嘱服药是很重要的,并告知任何副作用。

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