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输血

ID: ANH00016chis
医学动画文字记录:医生可能会建议你接受输血来治疗你的疾病或挽救你的生命。血液将氧气和营养物质输送到身体的所有组织,并将二氧化碳和其他废物从组织中清除。血液还有助于抵抗感染和愈合伤口。血液由液体部分和细胞成分组成。液体称为血浆,营养物质、激素、凝血因子和其他化学物质溶解在血浆中。细胞成分悬浮在血浆中,而不是溶解。血细胞由运送氧气和二氧化碳的红细胞、抗感染的白细胞和帮助凝血的小亚细胞血小板组成。血细胞是在骨髓中产生的,骨髓是许多骨骼中的一种软组织。输血是使用供血者的血液来补充红细胞、白细胞、血小板、凝血因子、血浆或全血。可能需要输血的情况包括:外伤造成的失血、心脏或其他重大手术、器官移植、出血性疾病(如血友病),严重贫血(包括镰状细胞性贫血),白血病或其他癌症的治疗,破坏血细胞或骨髓的疾病,或者新生儿Rh不相容。开始输血时,将静脉注射针插入手或手臂的静脉。附近挂上装有献血者血液的血袋,血液会通过连接在静脉注射针上的输液管缓慢滴下,让血液流过静脉,进入血液循环系统。在整个输血过程中,会监测你的体温、心率、呼吸和血压。血袋空了之后,如果你需要更多的血,另一个袋子会被连接到静脉输液管上。输血完成后,拔出针头。输血后,医生会监测你的生命体征,以确保你没有不良反应。如有必要,可能会给予利尿剂以减少肿胀或液体潴留。

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