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调强放射治疗(IMRT)

ID: ANH12074chis
医疗动画文字记录:医生可能会推荐调强放射治疗,这是一种以杀死癌细胞或控制其生长来治疗特定类型癌症的方法。体内细胞的生长和分裂是正常细胞周期的一部分。细胞核控制着这个过程。在每个细胞核内,称为DNA的遗传物质包含着指导这一过程的指令。有时细胞的DNA会受损。通常情况下,DNA的反应要么是自我修复,要么是发出指令导致细胞死亡。然而,当发生癌症时,细胞DNA中指导细胞分裂的部分被破坏了。当这些部分受损时,DNA无法自我修复。相反,未修复的DNA会导致细胞生长并不受控制地分裂成更受损的细胞,称为癌细胞。当癌细胞增殖并取代正常细胞时,肿瘤就形成了。放射治疗通过对癌细胞的DNA造成巨大损伤来杀死癌细胞。随着细胞停止分裂和死亡,肿瘤缩小。如果肿瘤在头部,放射治疗师可能会做一个网格框架或面罩,使你在调强放疗期间保持正确的体位。或者你会纹一个永久性的小纹身来帮助调整IMRT。接下来,治疗师会对头部进行CT扫描,以获得肿瘤及其边界的详细图像。医生将使用扫描来明确说明肿瘤和附近重要组织的三维形状。肿瘤的形状、大小、类型和位置可以帮助医生决定如何调整调强放射束,以破坏肿瘤,避开健康组织。在操作过程中,医用直线加速器会向肿瘤发射x射线。加速器内的计算机通过一种叫做准直器的装置来调整光束。准直器将调整或调节放射束的强度、方向和形状。这一特性允许更高剂量的辐射被输送到肿瘤,同时保护周围的健康组织。你可能会在几天或几周内接受多次放射治疗。这可以让你的身体在治疗和杀死尽可能多的癌细胞之间恢复。副作用通常是轻微的,只发生在治疗区域。常见的副作用包括局部皮肤刺激、局部脱发,或肿瘤附近的炎症和肿胀。
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