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认识白血病

ID: ANH19227chis
医疗动画文字记录:你或你关心的人可能被诊断出患有白血病。本视频将帮助你更多地了解这种类型的癌症,以及它是如何影响你的身体的。血液含有血浆和三种细胞:红细胞、白细胞和血小板。这些细胞是在骨骼的海绵状中心被称为骨髓的地方产生的。所有的血细胞都来自称为干细胞的母细胞。红细胞将氧气输送到身体组织。血小板帮助血液凝聚,白细胞帮助身体抵抗感染和任何其他有害入侵者或疾病。白血病是一种癌症,起源于某些正在形成的白细胞。在白血病中,骨髓中的干细胞产生了太多不能正常工作的异常白细胞。这会削弱免疫系统。白血病也可能减少血小板和红细胞的数量。白血病的主要类型是以它们的细胞来源和发育速度来命名的。例如,淋巴细胞性白血病影响被称为淋巴细胞的白细胞。在这种疾病中,过多的淋巴样干细胞发展成异常的淋巴细胞。骨髓性白血病影响被称为骨髓细胞的白细胞。在这种类型的癌症中,太多的骨髓细胞变得异常并分裂成异常的成髓细胞或粒细胞,这是不同类型的白细胞。每一种白血病都可能是急性的,这意味着它进展迅速;也可能是慢性的,这意味着它会随着时间发展。白血病的症状取决于白血病的类型和受影响的血细胞。有时白血病没有症状,但一般来说,症状可能包括乏力和虚弱,容易擦伤和出血,发热,体重减轻,以及频繁感染。作为诊断的一部分,医生会尽力查清楚肿瘤的大小,以及癌症是否已经扩散。这称为分期。不同类型的白血病分期不同。一般来说,早期意味着癌症的生长和扩散更少。一个更高的期意味着更多的癌症生长和扩散到全身。白血病的原因尚不清楚,但有一些因素会增加患病的风险:暴露在高剂量辐射下;有某些异常基因;感染某些病毒,如EB病毒;长期接触某些化学物质,如苯和化疗药物;吸烟和高龄。当你被诊断为白血病时,保持与医生和癌症护理团队交流。
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