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甲状腺癌

ID: ANH12075chis
医学动画文字记录:甲状腺癌是一种始于甲状腺的疾病。甲状腺位于喉部上方,包裹气管。甲状腺会产生两种激素,称为甲状腺激素和降钙素,并将它们直接分泌到血液中。在甲状腺内,滤泡细胞会产生甲状腺激素。身体会利用甲状腺激素来增加能量并在必要时升高体温。例如,当人体受到寒冷刺激时,就会通过分泌甲状腺激素来防止热量的散失。甲状腺中的滤泡旁细胞会产生降钙素。降钙素被认为可以刺激新骨的形成。如果你患有甲状腺癌,它可能是四种类型之一,具体取决于癌症开始的甲状腺细胞类型和癌细胞的外观。乳头状癌是最常见的甲状腺癌,起源于滤泡细胞。滤泡癌占甲状腺癌的1/10,也始于滤泡细胞。髓样癌不太常见,起源于滤泡旁细胞。甲状腺未分化癌是一种罕见的更危险的甲状腺癌。与所有癌症一样,甲状腺癌是由于细胞核中的遗传物质受损而导致细胞无节制地生长。当细胞开始积聚时形成肿瘤。随着时间的推移,肿瘤不断增大,甲状腺会形成肿块。你可能会感觉到颈部甲状腺上方有肿块。随着肿瘤在气管周围生长,可能会出现颈部或喉咙疼痛、声音嘶哑和吞咽困难。为了治疗甲状腺癌,医生可能会建议手术后进行甲状腺激素治疗、放射治疗或化疗。手术是所有类型甲状腺癌最常见的治疗方法。在甲状腺癌手术中,医生通常会切除整个甲状腺,也可能会切除附近的淋巴结。手术后,医生可能会建议进行甲状腺激素治疗。没有了甲状腺,身体中甲状腺激素的水平就会降低。这种情况会刺激大脑垂体释放促甲状腺激素。促甲状腺激素水平升高会导致残余的甲状腺癌细胞生长得更快。如果服用甲状腺激素,就会减少体内促甲状腺激素的量,从而防止癌细胞生长。如果你患有甲状腺未分化癌并且已经接受过手术,医生可能会建议放射治疗,如外照射放射治疗。辐射会损害并杀死任何残余的甲状腺癌细胞。手术后,医生可能会让你服用一种含有放射性碘的放射治疗药物。任何残余的甲状腺癌细胞都会吸收能够杀死它们的放射性碘。医生可能会建议对手术或放射治疗无效且已扩散的未分化甲状腺癌进行化疗。化疗是通过使用药物杀死癌细胞或抑制其进一步生长来阻止癌症的进展。

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