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烧伤:分类与治疗

ID: ANH00035chis
烧伤是由高温、化学物质、电或辐射引起的皮肤损伤。医生会根据烧伤的面积大小和皮肤烧伤的程度来推荐治疗方法。皮肤主要有三层:表皮、真皮和皮下组织,皮下层含有脂肪、血管和神经。皮肤下面是肌肉、筋膜和骨骼等组织。一度或浅表烧伤只影响表皮。烧伤部位呈红色且表皮干燥,没有水泡,并有轻度疼痛。二度或部分厚度烧伤涉及表皮、上真皮和下真皮的部分。烧伤部位发红,可能起水泡,肿胀,且非常疼痛。三度烧伤或全层烧伤延伸到真皮层和皮下。烧伤部位呈斑驳状,颜色从白色到棕色不等,呈现出干燥的皮革质地。因为烧伤的深度非常深,所以几乎不会感觉疼痛。四度烧伤会破坏皮肤的所有层,有时会延伸到底层的肌肉或骨骼。这些烧伤呈棕色、表皮干燥、烧焦状态,几乎感觉不到疼痛。你可以用冷水浸泡几分钟来治疗一度烧伤。为了缓解疼痛和保护肌理组织,可以涂抹抗生素药膏,并敷上干净、干燥的绷带。你可以服用醋氨酚或布洛芬来止痛。治疗二度烧伤可以在冷水中浸泡几分钟。涂抹抗生素软膏以防止感染,并用干净、干燥、不粘绑带包扎。在确保双手干净的前提下,每天更换绷带。对乙酰氨基酚或布洛芬可以帮助缓解疼痛和肿胀。如果三度或四度烧伤,立即去急诊室。如果可以的话,把烧伤的部位抬高到高于心脏的位置。如果烧伤直径超过3英寸(约7.5厘米),或者位于你的脸、手、脚、腹股沟、臀部或主要关节上,你也需要就医。

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