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憩室病

ID: ANH12077chis
医学动画文字记录:憩室病是在大肠末端形成袋状凸起时发生的一种疾病。大肠,也被称为结肠,包括盲肠、升结肠、横结肠、降结肠、乙状结肠、直肠和肛管。结肠壁有四层,黏膜,黏膜下层,肌层和外浆膜层。为结肠供血的血管称为直小血管。尽管病因不明,但憩室病与素淡饮食、便秘和经常排便时紧张有关。便秘会增加结肠内的压力。压力增加可能导致黏膜和黏膜下层透过结肠壁的薄弱区域,形成憩室。数个憩室同时存在,就会发生憩室病,但通常没有其他症状。相反,憩室感染时就会发生憩室炎。憩室炎的常见症状为左下腹痛、发热、便秘或腹泻、食欲减退。憩室炎可导致脓液积聚,称为脓肿。过度的肿胀和脓液的积聚可能导致发生穿孔,使脓液和其他物质扩散入腹腔。这是一种非常严重的情况,需要立即就医。如果你患有严重的憩室炎,可能需要进行脓肿引流手术。如果病情持续,你可能需要手术切除患处结肠。在手术过程中,医生会将结肠残端穿过腹壁,形成一个造口。结肠愈合后,再重新与直肠吻合。憩室病的主要治疗方法是多吃富含纤维的食物,使粪便软化并增加粪便量,这有助于刺激结肠收缩并排出粪便。憩室炎的其他治疗方法包括进无渣流食和口服抗生素。

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