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心律失常

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ID: ANH14135chis
根据活动水平的不同,心脏每分钟跳动60~100次。运动时可能更快,休息时可能更慢。正常的心率和节律可确保富氧血液输送到身体的所有器官,如大脑和肺。心脏中的一组细胞叫做心脏传导系统,它利用电脉冲来控制每次心跳的速度和节奏。每一次心跳都始于右心房的窦房结(SA结),然后通过称为心房和心室的心脏腔室扩散,使他们收缩。这个过程在每次心跳时重复。心脏传导系统的问题会导致心脏出现异常节律,称为心律失常。这可能导致脉搏不规则。心律失常可能发生在心房或心室。心律失常的类型包括:纤颤,即不规则的心跳节奏;心动过速,即每分钟心跳超过100次;以及心动过缓,即每分钟心跳低于60次。心房颤动是最常见的心律失常类型。随机的脉冲会导致心房迅速而随机地颤动或抽动。心房的心动过速称为室上性心动过速。在局灶性房性心动过速中,心房壁内的小区域启动或传递脉冲,导致心房快速但有规律地收缩。在心房扑动中,心房壁内较大的区域产生或传递脉冲,导致心房快速但有规律地收缩。室性心动过速也可发生在快速而有规律的心室收缩中。身体可能接收不到足够的血液,因为心室在完全充血之前就收缩了。最严重的心律失常是心室颤动,许多随机脉冲在心室壁内迅速发出。在心室颤动中,心室颤动而不是跳动。这是一种医疗紧急情况,因为心脏不能有效地将血液泵入身体或自身。有时,窦房结或电脉冲到心室的通路出现问题会导致心动过缓,心跳减慢。如果心跳过慢,身体可能得不到足够的富氧血液。根据心律失常的类型,医生可能会推荐以下一种或多种治疗方法:改变生活方式,如健康饮食、锻炼和戒烟;药物治疗,如抗心律失常药物和β-受体阻滞剂;导管消融(插入心脏的细电线用热或冷的能量破坏引起心律失常的组织),以及植入式设备,如起搏器或除颤器,以纠正心脏的节奏。

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